African Dark Earths : natural soil improvement techniques

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In Guinea and the forests of West Africa, there is a hidden history of enriching the soil with natural techniques handed down through generations to sustain food crops without artificial fertilizers.

Source: How Africans Are Saving Their Own Soil

Fairhead and his colleagues analyzed 150 sites in northwest Liberia and 27 sites in Ghana and discovered that the enriched soils, dubbed “African Dark Earths,” contain 200 to 300 percent more organic carbon than nearby soils and can support more intensive farming. They also contain 2 to 26 times greater amounts of pyrogenic carbon, which persists longer in soil than other carbons and is important for soil fertility.